Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) means it takes more time and effort to move food or liquid from your mouth to your stomach. Dysphagia may also be associated with pain. In some cases, swallowing may be impossible.
In Muslim countries, after a person sneezes they often say Al-ḥamdu lillāh (Arabic: الحمد لله) is an Arabic phrase meaning "Praise to God". His/her companion should say to he/she Yarhamuk-Allah "May Allah have mercy on you." The sneezing person should say Yahdikum-ullah wa yuslihu balakum "May Allah guide you and render sound your state of affairs." In Iran, it is common to respond to sneezing with the Persian phrase "عافیت باشه", which translates to "health", similar to common European expressions. Indian culture is to respond with Krishna, similar to a blessing in western cultures. In Slovakia, after a person sneezes, it is proper to say "Na zdravie!" which means "For health!"; a proper response should be "Ďakujem" which means "Thanks". This is also the case in Finland, where "terveydeksi" means "for health". In Turkey, after a person sneezes, it is proper to say "Çok yaşa" which means "Live long"; a proper response should be "Sen de gör" which means "May you see too [that I lived long enough]". In Telugu, a reciprocation to someone's sneeze is "chiranjeeva sataish" (చిర౦జీవ) which means "may you live long" (from Sanskrit). In Tamil, a reciprocation to someone's sneeze is "Dheergaiyish" which means "may you live long" (from Sanskrit). In Japanese entertainment, a character's sneeze frequently means that someone elsewhere is talking about said character by coincidence. Question - Can you give a little information about: - Your country and the meaning of Sneeze? - What to say when one of you sneezes? - Do you think that Sneeze is a disease (yes/no), why? ➡️ If you liked and found it useful, you can share with colleagues and friends on social networks. Source: Wikipedia
The tube that connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx - the eustachian tube-provides ventilation and drainage for the middle ear cleft. It is normally dosed, opening only during swallowing or yawning. When eustachian tube function is compromised, air trapped within the middle ear becomes absorbed and negative pressure results. The most common causes of eustachian tube dysfunction are diseases associated with edema of the tubal lining, such as viral upper respiratory tract infections and allergy. The patient usually reports a sense of fullness in the ear and mild to moderate impairment of hearing. When the tube is only partially blocked, swallowing or yawning may elicit a popping or crackling sound. Examination may reveal retraction of the tympanic membrane and decreased mobility on pneumatic otoscopy. Following a viral illness, this disorder is usually transient, lasting days to weeks. Treatment with systemic and intranasal decongestants (eg, pseudoephedrine, 60 mg orally every 4 hours; oxymetazoline, 0.05% spray every 8 - 1 2 hours) combined with autoinflation by forced exhalation against closed nostrils may hasten relief. Autoinflation should not be recommended to patients with active intranasal infection, since this maneuver may precipitate middle ear infection. Allergic patients may also benefit from desensitization or intranasal corticosteroids ( eg, beclomethasone dipropionate, two sprays in each nostril twice daily for 2-6 weeks). Air travel, rapid altitudinal change, and underwater diving should be avoided during an active phase of the disease. Conversely, an overly patent eustachian tube, termed "patulous eustachian tube;' is a relatively uncommon problem though may be quite distressing. Typical complaints include fullness in the ear and autophony, an exaggerated ability to hear oneself breathe and speak. A patulous eustachian tube may develop during rapid weight loss, or it may be idiopathic. In contrast to a hypofunctioning eustachian tube, the aural pressure is often made worse by exertion and may diminish during an upper respiratory tract infection. Although physical examination is usually normal, respiratory excursions of the tympanic membrane may occasionally be detected during vigorous breathing. Treatment includes avoidance of decongestant products, insertion of a ventilating tube to reduce the outward stretch of the eardrum during phonation and, rarely, surgical procedure in the eustachian tube. Source:(2017 CURRENT Medical Diagnosis & Treatment) - Norman G et al. Systematic review of the limited evidence base for treatments of Eustachian tube dysfunction: a health technology assessment. Clin Otolaryngol. 2014 Feb;39 (1) :6-2 1 . [PMID: 24438176] - Randrup TS et al. Balloon eustachian tuboplasty: a systematic review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015 Mar; l 52(3):383-92. [PMID: 25605694]