How does pregnancy increase the risk of diabetes mellitus?
a. Causing weight gain
b. Insulin resistance
c. Placental production of human chorionic somatomammotropin
d. Increase of maternal glucocorticoids
The answer is c.
Human chorionic somatomammotropin is a counterregulatory hormone that works to protect the fetus from hypoglycemia. The net result can be hyperglycemia and thus diabetes mellitus. Weight gain does occur in pregnancy, but insulin resistance and increased production of maternal glucocorticoids have not been proven to occur.